are attempts to minimize the effect of particular interests or passions by providing representation of diverse interests, while at the same time assuring equitable checks and balances.
Problems of rapid population growth make the need for impartiality, our third meta-ethical criterion, concretely explicit. Though survival values within our species are strong and tenacious, they are usually individualized and tied to relatively small interest groups representing one's social, ethnic, and national identity. For the survival of such groups many would, under certain circumstances, make sacrifices and even die. But population policies, though they must attend to the needs and interests of particular regions and population groups, should endeavor to ascertain and foster the best interests of the entire human species in its total ecological setting, a task that embraces attention to other species and material resources as well. The goals of population policies go beyond the boundaries our societal and national interests set for us.
In defining these goals, population policies would fail utterly to improve the human condition and enlist its deepest loyalties were they to diminish, rather than augment, the extent to which beneficence, freedom, distributive justice, and veracity are realized on the earth. These are not moral luxuries: our survival, and the worth of that survival, depend upon their effective implementation. As the demographer Ansley Coale has so sagely observed, "preoccupation with population growth should not serve to justify measures more dangerous or of higher social cost than population growth itself" (47). It would be the ultimate irony of history if through our population policies we should lose precisely what we seek to save, namely, human rights and welfare.
1. Berelson, Bernard, et al., eds., Family Planning and Population Programs.
Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1966.
2. Berelson, Bernard, ed., Family Planning Programs: An International Sur-
vey. New York: Basic Books, 1969.
3. Nortman, Dorothy, "Population and Family Planning Programs: A Fact
Book," Reports on Population/Family Planning. New York: Population Council, December 1969.
4. Bogue, Donald J., Principles of Demography. New York: John Wiley and
Sons, 1966. Ch. 20.
5. Cobb, John C., Harry M. Raulet, and Paul Harper, "An I.U.D. Field Trial
in Lulliani, West Pakistan." Paper presented at the American Public Health Assn., October 21, 1965.
6. Wyon, John B., and John E. Gordon, "The Khanna Study," Harvard
Medical School Alumni Assn Bulletin, 41, 1967. pp. 24-28.at should be part of the formulation and implementation of population policies. Generally, these guidelines draw in a special way upon the norm of veracity, i.e., truth-telling, anded for the middle class as well as the working class.